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Damage models play a decisive role in predicting the fracture phenomena that occur during metal forming or material testing. They may be classified into many categories based on energy, pore-growth micromechanics, porous material and continuum-damage mechanics. AFDEX supports the following damage models as shown in Figure 1 in the current version. 1. Cockroft & Latham Normalized 2. McClintock 3. Brozzo, Deluca & Rendina 4. Oyane, Okimoto & Shima 5. Rice & Tracey 6. Freundenthal Figure 1: Damage models in AFDEX For predicting the crack propagation, AFDEX uses an improved node-splitting technique in the quadrilateral mesh system. Figure 2 shows the history of the fracture formation made using the Brozzo et. Al damage model. It can be observed that the early crack propagates horizontally up to two thirds of the radius of the material. The crack growth is then finalized in the inclined direction. Figure 2: History of fracture formation by the Brozzo et al. damage model A detailed view of the fracture surfaces predicted using different damage models is presented in Figure 3. Figure 3: Detailed view of Fracture surfaces All the major damage models predicted acceptable solutions in terms of the slope of the tensile load drop in the fracture region. It can be observed from Figure 4 that the Freudenthal damage model came closest to the experiments. Figure 4: Load vs. Elongation curve based comparison For more details, reading the literature in the link below is recommended. http://msjoun.gnu.ac.kr/pub/paper/2014/Evaluation of Damage.pdf Cheers from AFDEX Support Team !